- Overgrowth by antibiotic-resistant opportunistic normal flora following the use of broad spectrum antibiotics.
- Stage of phagocytosis where circulating phagocytes produce surface glycoprotein receptors that increase their ability to adhere to the inner surface of capillary walls, enabling them to squeeze out of the capillary and be attracted to the site of infection. Phagocytes also exhibit increased metabolic and microbicidal activity by increasing their production of ATPs, lysosomal enzymes, lethal oxidants, etc.
- Represent 25-40% of the WBCs (1,500-4,500 per cubic mm of blood). They circulate back and forth between the blood and the lymphoid system of the body and mediate the adaptive immune responses.
- Tissue fluid picks up microbes and then enters the lymph vessels as lymph. Lymph vessels carry the lymph to regional ________________. (2 words)
- This complement pathway is activated by the interaction of microbial carbohydrates with mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in the plasma and tissue fluids.
- These cells make up the wall of the smaller blood vessels.
- Trigger inflammation; chemotactically attract phagocytes to the infection site; promote the attachment of antigens to phagocytes (enhanced attachment or opsonization);and cause lysis of gram-negative bacteria and human cells displaying foreign epitopes. These are the benefit of what pathways?
- Abbreviation for a a laboratory test that, among other things, detemines the total number of both leukocytes and erythrocytes per ml of blood.
- A substance that reacts with antibody molecules and antigen receptors on lymphocytes.
- Unencapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue containing fixed macrophages and ever changing populations of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes. (2 words)
- An antigen causing an allergic reaction.
- This organ contains many reticular fibers that support fixed macrophages and dendritic cells, as well as everchanging populations of circulating B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
- Found in in tears, mucous, saliva, plasma, tissue fluid, etc., and breaks down peptidoglycan in bacteria causing osmotic lysis.
- The most abundant of the leukocytes, normally accounting for 54-75% of the WBCs. An adult typically has 3,000-7,500 per cubic mm of blood but the number may increase two- to three-fold during active infections. Important in phagocytosis and producing enzymes that promote inflammation.
- Mediate humoral immunity, the production of antibody molecules against a specific antigen. (2 words)
- Endocytic pattern-recognition receptors promote _________________.
- Pattern recognition receptors in the cytoplasm of human cells that recognize bacterial muramyl dipeptide from peptidoglycan. (acronym)
- Adhesion molecules activated on the surface of the endothelial cells on the inner wall of the capillaries bind to corresponding molecules on the surface of leukocytes called ____________.
- The actual portion or fragment of an antigen that react with receptors on B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
- IgG or IgM is made in response to an antigen. The Fab portion of IgG or IgM reacts with epitopes of that antigen. The binding of C1q activates the C1r portion of C1 which, in turn, activates C1s. This activation gives C1s enzymatic activity to cleave complement protein C4 into C4a and C4b. This best describes the _____________ complement pathway.
- Many of the Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), especially those that bind to bacterial and fungal cell wall components, stimulate the transcription and translation of cytokines that promote ______________.
- Type I interferons, produced by virtually any virus-infected cell, provides an early innate immune response against viruses. Interferons induce uninfected cells to produce enzymes capable of degrading _________. (2 words)
- Colony-stimulating factors are cytokines that regulate the production of colonies of the different types of _____________.
- These cells are derived from monocytes, they are located throughout the epithelium of the skin, the respiratory tract, and the gastrointestinal tract. Their primary function is to capture and present protein antigens to naive T-lymphocytes.
- Soluble molecules produced as a part of the body's immune defenses that bind microbes to phagocytes.
- Have CD8 molecules and T-cell receptors (TCRs) on their surface for protein antigen recognition. They differentiate into cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). (2 words)
- An antigen-nonspecific immunity that a host uses immediately or within several hours after exposure to almost any microbe. This is the immunity one is born with and is the initial response by the body to eliminate microbes and prevent infection.
- The movement of phagocytes toward an increasing concentration of some attractant.
- Attachment of the phagocyte to the microbe or cell by the innate recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs by means of endocytic pattern-recognition receptors.
- This complement pathway is activated by C3b binding to microbial surfaces and to antibody molecules.
- They promote clotting by sticking together after becoming activated and forming plugs to close up damaged capillaries. They also secrete cytokines and chemokines to promote inflammation.
- Found in the connective tissue and throughout the mucous membranes, these cells release histamine, eosinophil chemotactic factor, neutrophil chemotactic factor, platelet activating factor. Their main function is to promote inflammation. (2 words)
- Toll-like receptors that recognize viral and bacterial nucleic acids are typically found in the membranes of _______________.
- Species of Clostridium responsible for antibiotic-associated colitis.
- An antigen that is recognized by the body as non-self and stimulates an adaptive immune response.
- Binding of microbial PAMPs to their PRRs promotes the synthesis and secretion of intracellular regulatory molecules called _____________.
- Lymphocytes that lack B-cell receptors and T-cell receptors. They kill cells to which antibody molecules have attached through a process called antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). They also kill human cells lacking MHC-I molecules on their surface.
- Most of the TLRs that bind to viral components trigger the synthesis of cytokines called ____________ that block viral replication within infected host cells.
- Have CD4 molecules and T-cell receptors (TCRs) on their surface for protein antigen recognition. They function to regulate the adaptive immune responses through cytokine production. (2 words)
- This receptor can only recognize peptide epitopes from protein antigens presented by the body's own cells by way of special molecules called MHC molecules. (2 words)
- The abbreviation for the complement pathway product that helps to destroy gram-negative bacteria as well as human cells displaying foreign antigens (virus-infected cells, tumor cells, etc.) by causing their lysis. It can also damage the envelope of enveloped viruses. (acronym)
- A small molecule that by itself is not immunogenic but can act as an antigen when it binds to a larger protein molecule.
- During an active infection, people are generally producing large numbers of new neutrophils and therefore will have a higher percentage of the immature _______ forms.
- Normally comprise 1-4% of the WBCs (50-400 per cubic mm of blood). Their granules stain red. The substances they release defend primarily against fungi, protozoa, and parasitic worms (helminths), pathogens that are too big to be consumed by phagocytosis. Also promote inflammation.
- An antigen-specific immunity that take several days to become protective and are designed to react with and remove a specific antigen. This is the immunity one develops throughout life.
- Innate immunity is typically activated by _________. (acronym)
- Derived from monocytes, these cells are important in the killing of microbes, infected cells, and tumor cells by phagocytosis; processing antigens so they can be recognized by T-lymphocytes; and secreting proteins called cytokines.
- Phagocytes contain membranous sacs called ____________ produced by the Golgi apparatus that contain various digestive enzymes, microbicidal chemicals, and toxic oxygen radicals.
- Activated macrophages and other leukocytes release inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1 when their pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) bind pathogen associated molecular patterns or PAMPs. These cytokines stimulate the anterior hypothalamus of the brain, the part of the brain that regulates body temperature, to produce prostaglandins that lead to an increase in body temperature. This is the mechanism behind an innate immune defense called ___________.
- The attachment of microbes to phagocytes by way of an antibody molecule called IgG, the complement proteins C3b and C4b produced during the complement pathways, and acute phase proteins such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and C-reactive protein (CRP).
- Found in humans, these molecules are short cationic peptides 29-34 amino acids long that are directly toxic by forming pores in the cytoplasmic membrane of a variety of microorganisms causing leakage of cellular needs. They also activate cells for an inflammatory response.
- The antigen receptors on the cytoplasmic membrane of B-lymphocytes are called B-cell receptors and are actually _____________ molecules