- The process by which phagocytic white blood cells stick to the walls of capillaries, squeeze out, and enter the tissue at the infection site.
- Protein found in the cell wall of various bacteria that bind to specific receptor molecules on the surface of host cells and enable the bacterium to adhere intimately to that cell in order to colonize and resist physical removal.
- The chemical being used inhibits or kills the intended pathogen without seriously harming the host. (2 words)
- The ability to cause disease. Used when comparing two strain of the same species.
- This is a neurotoxin that binds to inhibitory interneurons of the spinal cord and blocks their release of inhibitor molecules. By blocking the release of inhibitors, the toxin keeps the involved muscles in a state of contraction and leads to spastic paralysis, a condition where opposing flexor and extensor muscles simultaneously contract.
- The process of delivering nutrients and oxygen via arterial blood to a capillary bed in biological tissue.
- An infection acquired while in the hospital.
- A protein poison usually secreted from a living bacterium but also released upon bacterial lysis and sometimes injected directly into human cells by bacteria.
- These bacteria are very thin, possess internal flagella , and use their motility to penetrate host mucous membranes, and skin abrasions, as well as to enter the lymphatics and bloodstream and disseminate to other body sites.
- The PRR that binds LPS from the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria to induce inflammation. (acronym)
- Recognized by the body during unenhanced attachment, these microbial molecules bind to endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on the surface of the phagocytes. (acronym)
- Have genes coding for multiple antibiotic resistance as well as transfer genes coding for a conjugation (sex) pilus. (2 words)
- This toxin increases the permeability of capillaries and muscle cells by breaking down lecithin in cytoplasmic membranes. This results in the gross edema of gas gangrene.
- This bacterial structure primarily functions to enable bacteria to resist unenhanced attachment to phagocytes.
- A process where the body's immune defenses mistakenly attack the body.
- An antimicrobial agent that inhibits the growth of microorganisms is said to be _________ in action.
- The first response to infection and injury, this process enables body defense cells and defense chemicals leave the blood and enter the tissue around an injured or infected site.
- A disease where microorganisms enter the bloodstream and cause harm.
- Attachment of microbes to phagocytes by way of an antibody molecule called IgG or two proteins produced during the complement pathways called C3b and C4b.
- Molecules synthesized by bacteria that enable bacteria to trap iron and take it into their cells for metabolism
- Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are examples of inflammatory ____________.
- These organelles contain digestive enzymes and microbicidal chemicals and fuse with the phagosome containing the ingested microbe causing the microbe to be destroyed.
- A number of bacteria produce this exotoxin that binds to the cells of the small intestines. Most of these toxins catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of host cell proteins that turn the synthesis of the metabolic regulator molecules cyclic AMP (cAMP) or cyclic GMP on resulting in high levels of cAMP and cGMP that cause loss of electrolytes and water and results in diarrhea.
- Activates the host cell's cytoskeletal machinery enabling bacterial entry into the cell by phagocytosis.
- Resistance that occurs when a bacterium is not killed but simply stops growing when the antibiotic is present. It then is able to recover once the antibiotic is no longer in the host.
- An antimicrobial agent that kills microorganisms is said to be _________ in action.
- A potentially fatal condition where an excessive inflammatory response as a result of excessive cytokine production can result in circulatory collapse. (acronym)
- Along with peptidoglycan, the primary PAMP in the acid-fast cell wall that induces the production of inflammatory cytokines.
- This toxin, produced by Corynebacterium, interferes with host cell protein synthesis by catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of host cell elongation factor 2 (EF-2), necessary in order for tRNA to insert new amino acids into the growing protein chain. This results in cell death. Cells of the heart, nerve tissue, and kidneys have receptors for this exotoxin.
- The ability of bacteria to sense their own population density, communicate with each other by way of secreted factors, and behave as a population rather than as individual bacteria. (2 words)
- Polymerization and then depolymerization of actin filaments send pseudopods out to engulf a microbe and place it in a __________________.
- A decreased volume of circulating blood.
- Inflammation, phagocyte chemotaxis, opsonization, and MAC lysis of biological membranes are all benefits of the ____________________ pathways.
- Used by many bacteria to get to cells of the mucous membranes in order to colonize the bladder and the intestines.
- These toxins, produced by rare invasive strains of group A beta streptococci, contribute to streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and the destruction of muscles (myositis) or the sheath that covers the muscle (necrotizing fasciitis).
- A bacterial toxin that interacts with exceedingly large numbers of T4-lymphocytes leading to excessive cytokine production.
- Molecules on the surface of defense cells that bind PAMPs of microbes to initiate innate immunity. (acronym)
- Layers of bacterial populations adhering to host cells and embedded in a common capsular mass.
- An antibiotic that is generally effective against a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (2 words)
- This structure consists of a protein shaft with a unique adhesive tip that allows certain bacteria to adhere to corresponding receptors on a host cell in order to colonize that cell. May allow bacteria to resist the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged bacterium and the host cell.
- The primary PAMP in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria that induces the production of inflammatory cytokines. (acronym)
- Blood vessels increase in diameter and exhibit increased capillary permeability.
- An antibiotic that generally works against just gram-positives, gram-negatives, or only a few bacteria. (2 words)
- This exotoxin binds to and enters the presynaptic neuron and blocks its release of acetylcholine. This causes a flaccid paralysis, a weakening of the involved muscles.
- Metabolic products of one microorganism that inhibit or kill other microorganisms.
- A drop in blood pressure.
- This toxin is an A-B toxin that cleaves host cell rRNA and prevents the attachment of charged tRNAs thus stopping host cell protein synthesis. It also enhances the LPS-mediated release of cytokines such as Il-1 and TNF-alpha and appears to be responsible for a complication of shigellosis and E. coli O157:H7 infection called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), probably by causing blood vessel damage.
- A condition resulting from increased capillary permeability and injury to capillaries in the alveoli of the lungs resulting in acute inflammation, pulmonary edema, and loss of gas exchange.
- A mistake during DNA replication resulting in a change in the nucleotide base sequence.
- During adaptive immune defenses, this type of molecule is made in order to stick bacteria to phagocytes during enhanced attachment, prevent bacteria from attaching to host cells, activate the classical complement pathway, and clump bacteria together for easier removal by phagocytes.